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Some solutions for tackling the problems of technosphere and megalopolis environmental safety

Report thesis:

"Some solutions for tackling the problems of technosphere and megalopolis environmental safety "

Technological progress rapid growth and megalopolis formation resulted in new problems, concerned with technosphere development, directly connected with ecological disturbance of the environment. For successful restoration of the disturbed megalopolis environment balance, it is necessary to define the most dangerous contaminating factors, elimination of which gives the best effect, as well as indicate the actual problems of megalopolis ecosphere security.

Systematic analysis of ecologic situation shows that the most considerable contribution to the pollution of human environment in a megalopolis is made by specific gas emitted by automobiles, plants, living territories polluted by hard domestic wastes (HDW) and constantly generating toxic gas emissions. This ecologic balance disturbances results in processes of toxic chemical substances and dangerous biologic agents secondary synthesis (according to the laws of quantum mechanics), leading to poisoning of water, soil, food and creating the conditions for pathologically accelerated population ageing.

Megalopolis environment restoration requires determination of the major negative factors, both common and separate for each item, elimination of which effectively reduces ecologic danger. One of the common factors, poisoning megalopolis environment is atmosphere pollution. One should underline the following urgent tasks for megalopolis environmental restoration:

  • Recultivation of territories with unapproved dumps of hard domestic wastes, allotted for houses and household constructions;
  • Quality improvement and volume increase of industrial and domestic drain refinement;
  • Elimination of gas emissions into the atmosphere by plants;
  • Providing the population with the radiation protection and excretion of incorporated radioactive nuclides from the body;
  • Reduce of carcinogenic danger of automobile transport.

If we solve this short list of problems, posing extreme threat to human life and health, it will allow us to weaken the effects of tehnogenic factors on the megalopolis ecosystem.

For separate items, for example, the territories polluted by hard domestic wastes, the major factor is toxic gas emissions, accompanying the natural organic substances and buried chemical compounds decomposition, generation continuance of which is counted in centuries. It is these gas emissions of toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic chemical compounds that present the most urgent threat to human life.

Unfortunately, construction technologies, used at limited sites, presupposed changes in relief due to hard domestic waste fill, without taking into account the consequences for the population health. Thus, most living territories of the megalopolis turned out to be on the constantly generating gas and other emissions.

The existing erroneous belief about prevention of hard domestic wastes gas emissions using the method of ground coverage only worsen the situation because there emerge secondary organic substances decomposition reactions which result in additional toxic chemical gas agents generation. It is known that any grounds are transparent for gas phase migration. Dump sediments of HDW generate gas all the year, excreting heat regardless of weather. Even in winter the dumps do not freeze. No matter what is under the ground surface, be it mineral resources or something else - the thing is that it should not excrete poisoning gases, polluting the atmosphere, into the air we breathe in.

The dwellers of the houses, constructed on waste sediments, suffer from developing of the so called toxemic syndromes, gradually leading to tissue function loss, manifested in different clinic symptoms of unclear ethiology and at the same time in pulmonary circulation abnormality, circular disorders in bowels, brain and myocardium, leading to renal insufficiency and liver impairment with encephalo-pathologic coma, brain edema and its strong hypoxia, early ageing and unexpected death.

1992-1993 saw successful performance of pilot industrial programs ordered by Moscow government, which sterilized buried HDW gas generation lying under the living constructions of densely populated districts. The used technology allowed to fulfill the task within 3 months without sophisticated engineering works with high security level by considerable volumes (360000 and 128000 cubic meters) on the depth of 28 meters.

Every day each megalopolis absorbs and excretes huge amount of water. Industrial and household drain treatment, increase of the volume of the treatment, improving the quality of disposal plant construction without additional capital waste gain ever-increasing importance due to accelerated growth of megalopolis and unoccupied territories reduction.

The major criteria of this problem solution are evidently accelerating the drain treatment process and reduction of silt, produced in the process of biologic treatment. Silt utilization, its displacement to the burial places is another factor, disturbing ecologic balance in the environment. Silt of waste disposal plant aerotanks contains all the toxic substances, present in the process of industrial and household drain treatment. Silt transportation and its ventilation on the silt sites pose additional ecologic threat owing to toxic dust atmosphere migration, provoking infectious and other diseases of unclear genesis. One of the variants of this problem complex solution lies in the creation of special microorganisms with predetermined properties. The experiment, carried out in 1991 unambiguously proved the possibility to create specialized silicon microorganisms, with anabiosis properties and proof against temperature changes, bounded with particular geographic coordinates of population inhabitation for stringent control of their spreading out of their own ecosystem of industrial object. The ability of these microorganisms to anabiosis creates restriction for superfluous silt generation.

Thus, both items - increasing efficiency of waste disposal plants and absence of superfluous silt generation - were settled thanks to predetermined ability of the microorganisms to anabiosis under the condition of absence or decrease of contaminants in the water, being their food. According to the experimentally obtained data, we can state that there is a potential opportunity to use the similar method to neutralize toxic compounds of existing waste water disposal plant aeration field.

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