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Nano-medicine what is it?

 

 

Dedicated to my teacher and friend, one of the founders of nano-medicine in USSR, the former Head of Central design-engineering department of medical and special equipment of the Ministry of the defense industry,

Jakubovich S.K., Doctor of Engineering Science, Professor, academician, laureate of State prize.

 

 

A. I. Hesin, Doctor of Engineering Science, the academician of Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.

The existing situation in the sphere of medicine, therapeutic methods of treatment and clinical psychology is determined to a considerable degree by discontent by practical means they have at their disposal. This actively prompts researches to search of new approaches to development of higher mental performance models and technologies of medical practice in the field of general therapy, contributing to creation of new effective methods of prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Modern medicine begins active use of nano-technologies gains and thus develops its new direction i.e. so called nano-medicine.

This article is a short analytic survey of nano-technologies that underwent clinic tests and have prospects of practical use in medical practice and pharmacy. In this article I will try to systemize and generalize problems and achievements of nano-medicine, a science that is not really wide existing, but only an incipient one. Leading scientists predict, it is this branch of medicine that will prevail in the second half of twenty first century.

Today there is probably no complete definition for the notion of nano-medicine. The only thing that can be said is that nano-medicine is medicine, based on the achievements of modern science, encompassing almost all knowledge, accumulated by mankind.

Nano-medicine is one of the dynamically developing medicine scientific directions and it implies monitoring, improvement, genetic correction and control of biologic systems of human body on molecular level, using nano-devices, nano-structures and information technologies.

This definition was given by Robert Freitas, the leading discoverer in this field and analyst of Institute of Molecular Manufacturing (IMM). More simply, nano-medicine is symbiosis of traditional, classical medicine, quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and supramolecular chemistry. The nano-medicine practice uses gains of nano-technologies in treatment and biologic rejuvenation of human body, including achievement of its physical immortality. Contemporary views of medicine on the field of organ pathology and nervous system pathology development are based on the idea that paraplasms are cellular structures with reversed parameters, united in an integral system [1].

System mechanisms of pathologic lesions manifest with different forms of pathologies on various levels of structural and functional organization of nervous system. In different combinations and variants the typical pathologic processes appear in the form of different clinical entities of diseases.

The development of system oriented approach in hominal physiology and general pathology, and on this basis elaboration of polyparametric methodology and regulation methods of functional states of organism as an integral system, is a complicated interdisciplinary scientific task [2, 3, 4].

Nano-medicine as a science is meant not only simply improve already existing regulation methods of functional states of human body, but also introduce qualitatively new methods of treatment. This qualitative leap in medicine is to be embodied using new physical principles, information and telecommunication technologies, nano-computers and nano-robots. Contemporary state and trends of nano-technologies development give rise of optimism concerning cybernetic way of nano-technologies development.

When the question is about nano-medicine development, the following directions are meant:

Usage of nano-technologic computer intellectual and imaginative method of cognitive graphics for control of biologic objects of organism to provide regeneration of organs, systems and tissues, prolongation of physical existence of human beings;

  • Usage of nano-technologic computer with artificial intellect , including smart nano-robots, comparable with molecules and atoms in their dimensions for abolition of pathological states and infective agents, provoking the disease progress;
  • Direct manipulation by single components of the substance, atoms, molecules for genetic correction of human genome using special equipment;
  • Evolution of information and telecommunication methods;
  • Evolution of polyparametric functional and organ nano-technology, including morphologic diagnostics on the basis of intellectual and imaginative systems and cognitive graphics as well as nano-computer technologies of functional human body state control.

That is why the transition from classic medicine to nano-medicine is already qualitative rather then quantitative change, i.e. the leap from substance manipulation using biochemical reactions methods to manipulation by single components of cellular substance from nano- to yokto- linear dimensions. Thus, nano-medicine, therefore works not with the substance itself, but with its components.

The peculiarity of nano-medicine is that it is a complex process in which new methods or medicaments afford an new opportunities and better solutions without replacing previous medical methods and technology of medical product manufacturing. Thus, the use of nano-technologies in medicine inspires new life in old time-proved methods and technologies of human health rehabilitation as well as prolongation of his life without any changes in the whole today existing technologic chain.

Contemporary natural sciences do not know any fundamental principle that forbids life prolongation.

The means to overcome age is the high tech complex named nano-medicine, it discovers new world in many directions that until recently seemed fantastic.

So, what nano-medicine can?

Many speak about nano-technologies in medicine and nano-medicine as about scientific and technological revolution, but a few really know what it is. The world changes quickly and many things that seemed fantastic before become real. Nano-medicine and nano-technologies fundamentally change our ideas of human beings. One can speak about nano-medicine, able to show the miracle of regeneration of systems, organs and tissues of human body, to solve the problems of genetic diseases and biologic ageing as about medical scientific and technologic revolution. Revolution named nano-medicine is already outlined today.

Nano-medicine is a new perspective scientific concept of medicine, based on point influence on the organism on atom and molecular levels, and use of new physical principles, tiny nano-robots, information and telecommunication technologies, nano-computers with artificial intellect, designed for this purpose.

Contemporary state and trends of nano-medicine development create prerequisites for cybernetic nano-medicine technologies development. At present this new interdisciplinary school of medical science is on the stage of formation. Its methods only emerge from laboratories, and most of them exist only as projects. However, most experts believe that it is these nano-technologic methods that will be prevailing in XXI century. For example American National Institute of Health included nano-medicine in the five high-priority medicine development areas in XXI and National Cancer Institute of USA is going to apply nano-medicine achievement in cancer treatment. Application of nano-technologies in treatment of such socially important human diseases as oncology, cardiology, and infective diseases will delete many diseases from the list of dangerous illnesses; all people will enjoy life far longer.

Science develops rapidly and it is not surprising that in several years nano-medicine will be as accessible as Internet!

The result of all previous scientific and technological revolutions was that people more and more proficiently copied mechanisms and materials created by Nature. The breakthrough in the sphere of nano-technologies is quite the other thing. For the first time human being will create a new matter that was unknown and inaccessible to Nature. In fact, science has come closer to modelling the principles of living matter creation, where unknown to contemporary science laws are functioning. The predominance in science the so-called thought inertness constantly reduces the notion of nano-technologies to elementary mechanic approach: either to forming the ultrafine phase of substance or to attempts to combine incompatible by mere mechanic way i.e. to build a complex biologic construction from single atoms, without taking into consideration the peculiarities of quantum mechanics laws. Journalists, decorating their articles by the pictures of submarines with mechanisms, gnawing plaques on the vascular walls, only frighten readers. The molecule, using nano-technologic methods, can not be depicted as it does not have image in our common understanding.

Primitive mechanistic approach to use of nano-technologies that does not take into consideration their ability to nuclear transformation of the substance can have catastrophic consequences. One of the spectacular examples of this unreason can be creation of ultrafine phase of substance and use of it, passing them off as nano-technologies, for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. It is well known that ultrafine phase of any substance is a highly active cancerogene i.e. a substance that provokes such menacing illness as cancer, at the same time few people think about the consequences.

Evolution of nano-technologies pose new and at times unpredictable dangers, especially linked with provocations of different kinds, due to insufficiently competent estimation of possible global consequences, and that is why the role of state as a guarantee of nano-technologies safety. And this is not only idle words, but reality, based on particular facts, when the whole humanity two times was under the threat of total destruction due to absolute irresponsibleness and incompetence of scientific consultants, serving provocateurs. Based on the above, one can conclude that every state, which has mastered nano-technologies, takes the burden of responsibility for the fate of the whole mankind, and even greater, than when possessing thermonuclear weapon. Taking into consideration colossal scale possibilities for non-military use, nano-technologies can be used also for military purposes. For example, nano-medicine equipment and vice versa nano-medicine equipment with transformed parameters this phrase tells a good deal to competent specialists.

That is why nano-technologies can be either great benefit of total destruction of mankind, but it is better to make them great benefit.

>At present there exist no standards of nano-technologic equipment control in any country of the world. The only way to control is direct testing of finished nano-technologic devices. Considering specific peculiarities of quantum mechanics and nuclear physics, used in creation of such devices, there appears urgent necessity of fundamental research of nano-world laws to define criteria of nano-technologies estimation and to form technical regulations. Of course in view of high cost of such works and for maintenance of commercial confidentiality, one can not do without financial state support.

Npano-diagnostics

For the past several decades visualization methods became the crucial instrument in the diagnostics of illnesses. Nuclear magnetic resonance and computer-assisted tomography are excellent methods, but nano-technology permits to create far more sensitive and extremely precise instruments for diagnostics in vitro and in vivo with the abilities that are far beyond of that of modern diagnostic equipment.

As in any evolution of diagnostic methods the final aim is to allow doctors to identify the disease as early as possible. Using nano-computers and the so called Hesin phenomenon (see Large medical Encyclopedia) a principle opportunity to make diagnosis on cellular and even sub-cellular levels is created (1993).

The development of poly-parametric functional and organ nano-technology, including morphologic diagnostics, on the basis of intellectual and imagery systems and cognitive graphics, as well as nano-computer technologies of control of human body functional state is one of the most perspective ways to develop complex diagnostics and practical clinic therapeutics. Novelty of this method consists in combining of Luscher colour test and matrix cognitive graphics that uses self-similarity of multifractal structures, formed by computer system and inner structures of the organism. The self-similarity principle organizes the system of informational interaction man machine in natural way. The systems man and machine interact with the help of feedback, organized on the basis of visual cognitive channel with the function of unconscious, similarly to mechanism of the known in physics and radiotechnics phenomenon of wavefront reversal (The discoveries in the USSR 215. 1976) used for restoration of lost information in the communication channel. The method provides an opportunity to remedy functional disorders in human body as a whole system.

Originality and effectiveness of the method allow us to assert that its further development will give an opportunity to settle the matter of convertibility of pathologic processes by means of cellular matrix restoration according to the ideas of Reckeveg, the founder of homo-toxicology and A. Pishingers doctrine about crucial role of matrix in human body. Further development of the suggested computer intellectual and imagery method of cognitive graphics leads to creation of new medicine technologies related to systems, organs and tissues regeneration that will increase the quality of different disease entities treatment, including in early stages. The technology allows us to avoid medical problems, which appear in the process of cells transplantation and tissues growing using the so called stem cells, tackle the problems of genetic diseases. However, with the aim of protection against unscrupulous competitors who try to use this technology in military purposes and by safety considerations, in 1992 all the technical documentation was liquidated.

At present the works are underway to create more advanced pluripotential systems of diagnostics on the basis of the so called living computers that work on new physical principles (see Living computers of XXI) with the highest degree of access security.

The performed private scientific research and development of the technology have nothing to do with the adopted by the Ministry of Science of Russian Federation scientific concept The development of poly-parametric technology of functional diagnostics on the basis of intellectual and imagery systems and cognitive graphics, which is concurrently worked out in the Centre of new informational technologies of Lomonosov Moscow State University and in P.K. Anokhin Institute of Normal Physiology.

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